Friday, June 30, 2017

CDC Reports on a 2016 Salmonella Outbreak Related to Peppers

CDC released a report detailing a 2016 Salmonella outbreak related to peppers.  This is the first time this report has been issued.  Investigators had difficulties in determining the type of pepper as well as the source of the pepper.  Because the lack of 'actionable' information, no warning was issued to consumers.

In June 2016, PulseNet identified a cluster of 16 Salmonella Anatum infections with an indistinguishable [unique] pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern from four states.  Thirty-two patients in nine states were identified with illness onsets from May 6–July 9, 2016.  The combined evidence indicated that fresh hot peppers were the likely source of infection; however, a single pepper type or source farm was not identified.  Much of this related to different foods people ate, whether specific peppers were included in salsa recipes, etc.   The only link was related to testing in in April 2016, the same PFGE pattern had been uploaded to PulseNet from an isolate obtained from an Anaheim pepper, a mild to medium hot pepper.

This demonstrates the challenges posed by our food system, especially for produce items like peppers that are used primarily as an ingredient in many different foods, such as salsa.  Cross contamination from the peppers to other items may muddy the investigation.
Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Anatum Infections Linked to Imported Hot Peppers — United States, May–July 2016
Weekly / June 30, 2017 / 66(25);663–667
Rashida Hassan, MSPH1; Joshua Rounds, MPH2; Alida Sorenson, MPH3; Greg Leos, MPH4; Jeniffer Concepción-Acevedo, PhD1; Taylor Griswold, MS1; Adiam Tesfai, PhD5; Tyann Blessington, PhD5; Cerise Hardy, MPH5; Colin Basler, DVM1 (View author affiliations)

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Target Store Pulls Hampton Creek Food Products

Target stores removed Hampton Creek products from their stores.  These products are under the 'Just' brand and include Just Mayo, Just Mustard, and Just Chocolate Chip.  There is no official word yet on the actions were taken, but will stop selling the products ' pending a full review.'

Bloomberg News
Target Begins Removing Hampton Creek's Products From Stores
By Olivia Zaleski
‎June‎ ‎22‎, ‎2017‎ ‎5‎:‎24‎ ‎PM Updated on ‎June‎ ‎22‎, ‎2017‎ ‎9‎:‎24‎ ‎PM
 - Target received information alleging possible health concerns
 - The allegations included claims about mislabeled products

USDA ERS Publishes Food Safety Costs for Produce Operations Complying to Increased Food Safety Standards (LGMA)

The USDA Economic Research Service released a 64 page report on the costs associated with meeting safety standards established by the California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement (LGMA).  The costs with the LGMA should be similar to what will be required by the FSMA Produce Safety Rule.  This is based upon 7 produce operations and was conducted in 2012.

The paper acknowledged that it is difficult to assess the costs, and thus come up with average cost/farm or cost/acre for compliance.  They were able to determine where those costs went on average:
  • food safety staff - 38%
  • foremen food safety time - 32% 
  • audits - 17%
  • lost product due to animal intrusion - 11%
  • water testing - 2%
  • Other costs not uniformly collected included harvest worker training, glove use, raw product testing, and external record keeping management systems.
Estimated costs for foreman (based upon time allocation) ranged from 80,000 to 1,012,000 million.
Firms averaged
Table 3
Range of costs per firm for different food safety practices
                                                                        Range of costs ($) Number of observations  
                                                                        Low                High
Cost per firm:
Total field-level audits                                   27,150            305,430                 6
Raw product testing                                                0              90,000                 6
External record keeping                                          0                8,868                 7
Training                                                          19,900              71,398                 4
Protective clothing                                         12,000              52,000                  5
Total water testing                                           7,000               85,000                  7
Lost product                                                            0             304,000                 7
Equipment cleaning/sanitizing                       21,000             250,000                 4
Hired toilet/handwashing facilities                45,451              130,367                3 
and services

Note: In reporting individual costs per firm, there is a mix of costs for different-sized operations, and also a mix of costs for leafy greens and the whole produce operation. The  combination of firms reporting data for any cost also varies. As a result, the numbers in table 3 cannot be added together to get a low and a high for all costs. Source: USDA, Economic Research Service.

How solid are these costs?  Good question.  They are based upon if you ask someone what they are spending on mandated oversight....there may be a tendency to look at worst case scenario. Plus were there savings from improved practices?...hard to say.  I believe these costs increases are there, especially compared to processing facilities that already have much of the infrastructure in place.

Economic Information Bulletin Number 173
Food Safety Practices and Costs Under the California Leafy Greens Marketing Agreement
Linda Calvin, Helen Jensen, Karen Klonsky, and Roberta Cook
June 2017

Salmonella Outbreak in Canada Associated with Raw Frozen Breaded Chicken

In Canada, there have been 7 cases of Salmonella linked to frozen raw breaded chicken products.

Over the past few years, we have seen Salmonella outbreaks associated with raw breaded chicken (1, 2, 3 ).  In fact, FSIS issued an alert after the the Aspen Foods Salmonella-in-breaded chicken outbreak.   As was pointed out each time, there are a few issues - 1) the product is frozen, so when the consumer begins with frozen product, they may not cook it long enough in order to achieve the proper internal temperature. Along with this, many people do not use a thermometer in order to ensure that temperature is met, and  2) breaded products often look like they are fully cooked. This is because the par-cooking that sets the breading gives it a finished cooked appearance.  

So even though companies may post cooking instructions on the package, there must be controls in place to limit, even to the point of elimination, the risk of Salmonella.  This includes controlling Salmonella in the process environment, preventing growth through tight temperature control, and par-frying it well.

National Post
7 sickened by salmonella related to raw frozen breaded chicken in 4 provinces

Executives of Egg Company Ordered to Begin Serving Sentences for 2010 Salmonella Outbreak

A father and son, owners of an Iowa egg company, have been mandated to report to prison.  They were found guilty in 2014 to the 2010 Salmonella outbreak associated with eggs where close to 2000 people became infected.  They appealed their sentences, but those were upheld.

According to the news release, business groups had supported the appeal, arguing "that it is unfair to send corporate executives to prison for violations that they were either unaware of or that were committed by subordinates. The groups said it's highly unusual to attach a criminal penalty and prison time to executives when there is no proof of intention or knowledge of wrongdoing."  If you believe that food safety starts at the top, which I do, then it is important the executives should not only be aware, but also support food safety.

WRCBTV / Associated Press
Egg executives in salmonella case must report to prison

Posted: Jun 27, 2017 12:53 PM EDT
Updated: Jun 27, 2017 1:13 PM

Monday, June 26, 2017

Chicken Tenders Recalled After Complaints of Bone Fragments

A California company is recalling over 50,000 lbs of chicken bites because the firm received consumer complaints involving foreign objects in the form of bone.  There have been no injuries.

The primary target market for this product is children.

USDA Recall Notice
Overhill Farms, Inc. Recalls Chicken Products Due To Possible Foreign Matter Contamination
Class I Recall 078-2017
Health Risk: High
Jun 24, 2017

Friday, June 23, 2017

US Stops Imported Beef from Brazil for Food Safety Concerns

The US has stopped all importation of fresh beef from Brazil for food safety concerns.  Brazil is the fifth largest exporter of beef to the US.  Since an investigation into the Brazilian meat industry in March, the US has been inspecting all meat products from that country, refusing 11% of those shipments due to "public health concerns, sanitary conditions, and animal health issues."

USA Today
US bans Brazil beef imports over food safety concerns
Roger Yu , USA TODAY
Published 8:39 a.m. ET June 23, 2017 | Updated 0 minutes ago

Drain Decontamination Using Chlorine Dioxide Pods

Our good friend Dr. Mark Berrang shared his recent research on decontaminating floor drains with chlorine dioxide pods.  This may be useful for many facilities beyond the poultry processing facilities where the research was conducted, especially those facilities that have problems with drain backups. This method was able to achieve a 8.7 log reduction in the drain water and 6.7 log reduction of cells attached to drain piping.

Contact me if you want a copy of the paper or the supplier contact used in this research. (we of course, are not endorsing any one supplier).

JAPR Research Report

Self-contained chlorine dioxide generation and delivery pods for decontamination of floor drains

Thursday, June 22, 2017

NY Nut and Fruit Processor Source of Listeria Related Recalls

Over the past several days, many of the listeria - nut/dried fruit recalls have been linked to a company called HVF, Inc. AKA - Hudson Valley Farms. This includes the recent hummus recall due to pine nuts from HVF as well as other recalls such as protein bars from GoMarco, granola products from New England Bakers, and Protein Bars and Bits from Bulletproof 360. It is hard to tell what the ultimate source of these recalls, but clearly HVF is a major link, if not the primary source.

Here again is what appears to be an ingredient supply issue that triggers recalls among a number of further processing facilities.  In this case, the ingredient was produced by a very small processing facility - what kind of supplier controls were in place?  How legitimate is this supplier?

One concern was that the supplier information was not readily available online.  No website was present - was it there and taken down, or was there never one to start?  Wouldn't it be better to have a supplier who is there when there is an issue and to state the nature of the issue on their website?

It was difficult to tell the scope of the operation. According to a story in the Miami Herald, HVF is a company of 10 people or less. Looking further, it appears to be part of a larger group with the parent appearing to be a company called Bedemco, an importer of nut and fruit products.  HVF may just be a packing facility for this family run company.

Hummus Product Recalled For Potential Listeria in Pinenut Topping

 A TN company, House of Taller, is recalling hummus product with pine nut toppings after the pine nut topping after they were notified by the pine nut supplier that Listeria may be present on that ingredient.   The supplier is HVF (Hudson Valley Farms) /Bedemco.

Recalled House of Taller product is under the Marketside label which is sold at Walmart, the Fresh Foods Market Artisan brand and Latana brand. (What qualifies something as artisan? Nothing really, just our next overused marketing label.)
FDA Recall Notice
House of Thaller Recalls Selected Pine Nut Hummus Products Because of Possible Health Risk
For Immediate Release
June 19, 2017

Monday, June 19, 2017

CDC Report - National Botulism Surveillance Summary 2015

CDC released the summary of botulism cases for 2015.  Botulism is the disease caused by the toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum.  The toxin is a neurotoxin that stops neurotransmission resulting in paralysis, or loss in muscle function.  Botulism poisoning can result in death if not treated.  In most cases, it will result in hospitalization with the patient on a breathing apparatus due to loss in the ability to breath (paralysis of diaphragm).

The type we are most familiar is foodborne botulism where the organism grows in the food producing toxin.  But there is also infant botulism where the organism becomes part of the intestinal microflora of an infant.  A similar issue can happen in adults when their intestine is subject to colonization due to illness associated with antibiotic administration and decline of normal intestinal microflora.  Wound botulism occurs when the organism gets into a would and begins to grow.

The largest amount of cases reported in 2015 were infant botulism (141).  No deaths were reported.

There were 39 confirmed cases of foodborne botulism.  The one outbreak occurred when improperly canned potatoes were used to make potato salad at a church potluck dinner.  This resulted in 27 cases.
Another outbreak was associated with fermented seal flipper (4 cases), and then another was associated with beets roasted in aluminum foil and kept at room temperature for several days then made into a soup (2 cases).

National Botulism Surveillance Summary 2015
An overview of national botulism surveillance is available at:

Pet Treats Recall Expanded to Include Private Label Products - Controlling Overseas Co-packers

United Pets is expanding their initial recall of raw hide pet treats to now include private label products including Companion, Dentley's, Enzadent or Dentahex, Essential Everyday, Exer-Hides, Good Lovin' or Petco, Hill Country Fare, and Priority Pet.  The products are being recalled because the foreign manufacturing facility sanitized the product with quaternary ammonium or Quat.  Quat is a surface sanitizer and is not made to be used directly on food for dogs (or humans).

This case points out the concerns for companies who have another company co-pack their product in facilities outside the country.  One would have expected contracted company, in this case United Pet, would have been controlling those facilities to a point where product produced was compliant with US regulations, or even generally accepted practices.  As the purchasing clients, completing a hazard analysis to take into account unexpected, unacceptable practices can be difficult to impossible without an onsite visit by a trusted, knowledgeable auditor.

FDA Recall Notice
United Pet Group Expands Voluntary Recall of Multiple Brands of Rawhide Chew Products for Dogs to Also Include Private Label Brands Due to Possible Chemical Contamination
For Immediate Release
June 16, 2017

Friday, June 16, 2017

Amazon Acquires Whole Foods announced that it was purchasing Whole Foods Markets today.   The food landscape continues to change in surprising ways.

Produce News
Amazon to acquire Whole Foods in $13.7 billion deal
June 16, 2017

Various Nut Based Products Recalled Due to Listeria

There have been a number of recalls over the past week for nut based products for Listeria.  All recalls state that there was a supplier issue.  One would guess that most, if not all recalls are related to the same supplier.
  • NOW Health Group, Inc. (NOW), of Bloomingdale, Illinois, is expanding the voluntary recall of various nut butters.
  • NEW ENGLAND NATURAL BAKERS of Greenfield MA, is issuing a voluntary recall of various granola products.
  • The Kroger Co. (NYSE: KR) today announced it has expanded the recall of its 12 oz. packages of Simple Truth Dry Roasted Macadamia Nuts
  • Wildway LLC is voluntarily recalling certain grain-free granola
  • GoMacro, of Viola, Wis., is recalling a limited number of MacroBars and Thrive Bars
  • Bulletproof 360, Inc. (“Bulletproof”) of Bellevue, Washington is recalling five Collagen Protein Bar and Bite products
Another recall that may be related is one for dry fruit products.

  • Publix Super Markets is issuing a voluntary recall for Publix Tropical Medley Mix because it may be adulterated with Listeria monocytogenes. Publix received notification of the potential contamination from our supplier of dried apricot.

Dry products listed here will not support the growth of Listeria, so then the question of risk is based on the amount of Listeria present.  Therefore, this probably represents a low risk.
NOW Health Group Inc. Expands Voluntary Recall of Ellyndale® Nutty Infusions™ Because of Possible Health Risk
For Immediate Release
June 16, 2017

Wednesday, June 14, 2017

Breading Recall for Milk Allergens Due to Cross Contact in Processing

Newly Weds Foods issued a statement that their recall for breading, which caused a number of food processors to issue a recall, was due to cross contact in the manufacturing practice at their Massachusetts manufacturing facility.  The issue was discovered by one of their seafood customers. There were other meat and poultry recalls that resulted with more than 1.3 millions pounds of product.
Newly Weds Foods issues statement on breading-related recalls 

Monday, June 12, 2017

Breading Supplier Recall Due to Undeclared Milk Allergens Impacts Many Processors

Newly Wed Foods, a large supplier of breading as an ingredient, announced a recall of their product that has impacted a large number of companies that make breaded food items, forcing those companies to issue recalls.  The reason is that the breading ingredient(s) had milk allergen in them which was not declared on the labels.  The overall impact has been huge, with millions of pounds of various products being recalled.

Here is a list of companies posting recalls.
  • Giant Eagle, Inc. has announced a voluntary recall of Market District Toasted Crumb Tilapia and Giant Eagle Toasted Crumb Tilapia sold fresh from the seafood department of its supermarkets, and Giant Eagle Breaded Chicken Breast sold in the prepared foods department, due to an undeclared milk allergen.
  • Slade Gorton, Boston, MA is recalling the following products because they may contain undeclared milk. 
  • Packer Avenue Foods, Inc., a Philadelphia, Pa., establishment, is recalling approximately 9,690 pounds of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken salad due to misbranding and undeclared allergens,.....The products could contain milk, a known allergen, which is not declared on the product label. 
  • Conagra Brands, Inc., a Milton, Pa. establishment, is recalling approximately 717,338 pounds of spaghetti and meatball products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens,....... known allergen which is not declared on the product label. 
  • Gourmet Boutique LLC, with establishments in Jamaica, N.Y. and Phoenix, Ariz., is recalling approximately 294,744 pounds of ready-to-eat (RTE) chicken products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens, ... The products could contain milk, a known allergen, which is not declared on the product label. 
  • Pork King Sausage, a New York, N.Y., establishment, is recalling approximately 44,035 pounds of raw sausage link products due to misbranding and undeclared allergen,....The products could contain milk, a known allergen, which is not declared on the product label.
  • Advance Pierre Foods, Inc., a Portland, Maine establishment, is recalling approximately 54,699 pounds of chicken products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens, ....The products could contain milk, a known allergen, which is not declared on the product label. 
  • Maid-Rite Specialty Foods, LLC., a Dunmore, Penn. establishment, is recalling approximately 174,000 pounds of various beef products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens.....The products contain milk, a known allergen, which is not declared on the products labels. Tyson Foods Inc., a New Holland, Pa. establishment, is recalling approximately 2,485,374 pounds of ready-to-eat (RTE) breaded chicken products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens
  • Aldon Food Corporation, a Schwenksville, Pa. establishment, is recalling approximately 18,570 pounds of chicken salad due to misbranding and undeclared allergens, 
  • Water Lilies Food Inc., a Astoria, N.Y., establishment, is recalling approximately 4,335 pounds of ready-to-eat breaded chicken products due to misbranding and undeclared allergens
  • Safeway stores in Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Virginia and Washington D.C. are recalling deli-prepared fried chicken. Safeway was informed by Newlyweds Foods that the blended bread coating that it provided Safeway to make fried chicken included milk, which was not disclosed as an ingredient.
Breading is used both as a coating as well as added into the product (meatballs).  Breading and powder based coatings including pre-dust,  can include egg, dairy, wheat, corn, soy depending on the formula.  A supplier such as Newly Wed probably has hundreds of breading and coating formulas, and their labels must match the allergens listed.  Their customers, those food processors, depend on Newly Wed to control the allergens so that only those listed on the labels are actually in the product. When an allergen containing ingredient not listed on the official formula and ingredient package label accidentally gets into the product, then this creates an allergen mismatch for all of their processing customers.

USDA Recall Notice
News Release
Tyson Foods Inc. Recalls Ready-To-Eat Breaded Chicken Products Due to Misbranding and Undeclared Allergens
Class I Recall 067-2017
Health Risk: High 
Jun 9, 2017

Pet Treats Recalled Due to Use of QUAT as a Product Application

United Pet is recalling various rawhide chew products for dogs after it was found that the foreign suppliers were using QUAT to treat the products as a microbial reduction.  Quaternary Ammonium products are used as a sanitizer for food contact surfaces, but not for application to items that will be consumed.

In the report, "United Pet Group received very limited reports of pet illness based on the volume of possibly affected rawhide chew products manufactured and distributed. The primary complaint received from consumers was that the affected product had an unpleasant odor. Diarrhea and vomiting were also reported.  Exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds through direct ingestion may cause the following symptoms in dogs: reduced appetite, and gastric irritation including diarrhea and vomiting. These symptoms may require treatment by a veterinarian depending on severity."

Of course you can not use a food contact sanitizer on a food unless the use has been approved.

FDA Recall Notice
United Pet Group Voluntary Recalls Multiple Brands of Rawhide Chew Products for Dogs Due to Possible Chemical Contamination
For Immediate Release
June 10, 2017

Club Chef Recalls Produce Items Due to the Potential To Contain Listeria

Club Chef is recalling its snack kits and salad items.     The kits are retail items sold under the Kroger and Club Chef brand.  Club Chef is also recalling onions sold as a part of numerous foodservice items distributed through US Foods.

The recall notice on the  kit items stated that it comes after the company's own internal environmental testing found Listeria in the processing environment.

The US Foods recall impacted our local school district, so it probably impacted a number of foodservice operations across the country.

FDA Recall Notice
Club Chef LLC Announces Recall of Limited Number of Snack Kits
For Immediate Release
June 8, 2017

Tuesday, June 6, 2017

Miami Company Recalls Queso Fresco Cheese Due to Listeria

A Miami company is recalling Queso Fresco cheese due to the potential for Listeria.   Queso Fresco, or 'fresh cheese' is a Mexican style soft cheese normally made from unpasteurized milk.   Listeria contamination has been a problem with this style of cheese.  CDC has a fact sheet warning pregnant women to avoid this type of cheese because of the Listeria concern.  Over time, there has been a number of recalls associated with this and similar types of cheese.

FDA Recall Notice
Global Garlic Inc. Recalls "Queso Freso/Whole Milk Cheese" Because of Possible Health Risk
For Immediate Release
May 30, 2017

Bakery Recall Pepperoni Rolls After Receiving Foreign Object Complaints

An Ohio establishment is recalling 3.000 lbs of frozen, ready-to-eat, beef and pork pepperoni rolls  a bakery product, after receiving three complaints of clear meat casings in the product.  So did someone not remove the casing from the pepperoni before slicing?

USDA Recall Notice
P&S Bakery, Inc. Recalls Pepperoni Product Due to Possible Foreign Matter Contamination
Class I Recall 058-2017

Health Risk: High Jun 2, 2017
En Español

Congressional and Public Affairs Gabrielle N. Johnston (202) 720-9113

WASHINGTON, June 2, 2017– P&S Bakery, Inc., a Poland, Ohio establishment, is recalling approximately 2,959 pounds of pepperoni product that may be contaminated with extraneous materials, specifically clear meat casing utilized in food production, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

FDA Delays Compliance Dates for Agricultural Water as Part of FSMA Produce Safety Rule

The FDA announced that it is planning to extend the deadline for compliance to agricultural water standards used in irrigation as part of the FSMA Produce Safety Rule .  Irrigation water can be a source of pathogens, but it is not an easy to control, especially when that water comes from surface waters.  Work done here at Penn State by Luke LaBorde etal (ref below) found that it was hard to make a connection between water standards and pathogen levels.  So testing water to see if it meets standards that may not mean much in terms of the pathogens present.  It is easy to see how environmental factors will constantly change...whether that be the occasional presence of animals, the amount of rainfall, the amount of sunshine, etc.

For more information on irrigation water, visit the Penn State Extension Website -

Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Updates
FDA Intends to Extend Compliance Dates for Agricultural Water Standards

Earlier this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that it is exploring ways to simplify the agricultural water standards established by the Food Safety Modernization Act’s (FSMA) produce safety rule (PSR) after receiving feedback from stakeholders that some of the requirements are too complex to understand and implement.

Friday, June 2, 2017

Backyard Chicken Flocks Result in Numerous Salmonella Outbreaks

CDC reports that since the beginning of this year, there have been 8 Salmonella outbreaks related to backyard chickens. Within that, there have been 372 people infected and 71 of those cases resulting in hospitalization.

Poultry is a risk for Salmonella as well as Campylobacter.  People with backyard flocks, they are apt to treat the birds more as pets than farm animals, and with that, forget the need for proper personal hygiene including proper washing of hands, changing of clothes that are poop stained, and even removing shoes after stepping in bird dropping.  And even further, people increase the risk when they allow the birds to come inside their house or they snuggle with the birds.

CDC Zoontotic Diseases - Outbreak Advisory
Multistate Outbreaks of Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Live Poultry in Backyard Flocks, 2017

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Canadian Produced Flour Recalled for E. coli O121

Smucker Foods of Canada is recalling flour produced at Ardent Mills in Saskatoon SK, Canada for the potential to be contaminated by E. coli O121.  Impacted product is packaged in 20 lb. paper bags and was distributed nationwide to 19 distributors and two small retailers.  There have been no reported illnesses in the US.

This recall relates to a Canadian recall issued in March.  This recall was expanded in April to include product produced by Ardent Mills.

FDA Recall Notice
Smucker Foods of Canada Corp. Announces a Voluntary Recall on Select Golden Temple®, Swad®, and Maya® Flour Products in the U.S. Due to Possible E. Coli 0121 Contamination
For Immediate Release

May 31, 2017

CDC Report - Fourteen Consume Toxic Mushrooms in California

From CDC - In December of 2016, there were 14 cases of mushroom poisoning that took place in California.  "Eleven patients recovered, although three required liver transplants because of irreversible fulminant hepatic failure. One of those patients, a child, developed cerebral edema and suffered permanent neurologic sequelae."

Weather conditions provided conditions for Amanita phalloides, also known as  “death cap", to grow in the region.  The primary toxin, α-amanitin, causes damage to liver and kidney.  The toxin is heat stable and so is not destroyed by cooking.  It is interesting to note that people are initially sick with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, then feel better, then are sick again with potential kidney damage.

Amanita is mistaken for edible Agaricus (wood mushrooms or field mushrooms).
Source -

Deathcap in a spruce wood, West Wales
Amanita phalloides - Death Cap (

Field Mushrooms, Agaricus campestris, in Wales
Agaricus campestris L. - Field Mushroom (
Agaricus silvicola - Wood Mushroom
Agaricus silvicola  - Wood Mushroom (

It is important that people who pick wild mushrooms can properly identify them.  If someone gives you mushrooms.....just don't take them unless you know without a doubt that they can properly identify mushrooms, or you can properly identify wild mushrooms.

CDC - MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Amanita phalloides Mushroom Poisonings — Northern California, December 2016
Weekly / June 2, 2017 / 66(21);549–553